2. Observation/Research: Make observations and research your topic of interest.
3. Formulate a Hypothesis: Predict a possible answer to the problem or question.
Example: If soil temperatures rise, then plant growth will increase.
4. Experiment: Develop and follow a procedure.
Include a detailed materials list.
The outcome must be measurable (quantifiable).
5. Collect and Analyze Results: Modify the procedure if needed.
Confirm the results by retesting.
Include tables, graphs, and photographs.
6. Conclusion: Include a statement that accepts or rejects the hypothesis.
Make recommendations for further study and possible improvements to the procedure.
7. Communicate the Results: Be prepared to present the project to an audience.
Expect questions from the audience.
•Think you can name all seven steps without looking?
Let’s put our knowledge of the Scientific Method to a realistic example that includes some of the terms you’ll be needing to use and understand.
You watch your friend’s grandmother bake bread. You asked his grandmother what makes the bread rise.
She explains that yeast releases a gas as it feeds on sugar.
You wonder if the amount of sugar used in the recipe will affect the size of the bread loaf?
Be careful how you use effect and affect.
Effect is usually a noun and affect, a verb.
“ The effect of sugar amounts on the rising of bread.”
“How does sugar affect the rising of bread?”
You will need to research the areas of baking and fermentation and try to come up with a way to test the question.
Keep all of his information on this topic in a journal.
Follow the Experimental Design Diagram given in class.
•Formulate a Hypothesis-
The hypothesis is an educated guess about the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
•Do you know the difference between the independent and dependent variables?
The independent, or manipulated variable, is a factor that’s intentionally varied by the experimenter.
The IV is going to be 25g., 50g., 100g., 250g., 500g. of sugar in his experiment.
The dependent, or responding variable, is the factor that may change as a result of changes made in the independent variable.
The DV is the size of the loaf of bread.
You will need to come up with a procedure and list of needed materials.
Next: the determination of the control group.
In a scientific experiment, the control is the group that serves as the standard of comparison.
The control group may be a “no treatment" or an “experimenter selected” group.
The control group is exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group, except for the variable being tested.
All experiments should have a control group.
Because your friend’s grandmother always used 50g. of sugar in her recipe, that is going to use that amount in his control group.
Keep all other factors the same so that any observed changes in the bread can be attributed to the variation in the amount of sugar.
The constants in an experiment are all the factors that the experimenter attempts to keep the same.
•Can you think of some constants for this experiment?
-Write out the procedure for this experiment along with a materials list from the journal.
-You should have this checked by your teacher
-Check for any safety concerns.
Trials refer to replicate groups that are exposed to the same conditions in an experiment.
•Collect and Analyze Results
--With a table you can use to record the data.
--Get all the materials together and carries out the new experiment.
•Collect and Analyze Results
•Can you tell which group did the best?
•Communicate the Results